Turian troopers have low health, but possess moderate layer of shields on top of it. Like with other enemies in the game, their shielding will regenerate over time.
Turian Troopers will often take cover during the firefight, and tend not to come out unless you're in their line of sight. This allows you to wait out behind cover for your powers to recharge without being disturbed. If necessary, using Pull will flush them out of cover.
Like other humanoid enemies in the game, these troopers are vulnerable to headshots, receiving bonus damage when shot there.